Another possible reason for the development of the full-twist punch is aesthetics. Philosophically, the martial arts are involved in the development of character. Many styles that are based on the do (way) of the martial arts have a strong sense of aesthetics. Part of this aesthetic expression lies in the use of horizontal and vertical lines. Whereas jutsu (science or skill) types of martial arts tend to use diagonal lines. For example, in Iaido (a do type art), the sword is most likely to be drawn to execute a horizontal cut followed by a vertical downward cut, while in Battojutsu (a jutsu type art), the draw-cut is more likely to be a diagonal upward slice, followed by a diagonal downward blow. Likewise, in Taekwondo, a do (way) art, the knife hand strike is performed in a beautiful horizontal movement, while in Jiujutsu, the knife hand is performed on a downward angle in the direction necessary for hitting the pressure points of the neck. Similarly, the full-twist punch uses horizontal and vertical lines, while the three-quarter-twist punch uses the diagonals.
When in a self-defense situation, twisting during impact may cause tearing injuries to the attacker. Mohamed Ali's twisting punches ripped many opponents' faces
While executing the full-twist punch, the forearm muscles are fully stretched and fully contracted sequentially. In the three-quarter-twist punch, the forearm muscles only work to the point of greatest structural equilibrium. This means that the full-twist punch moves the forearm muscles through a greater range of motion than does the three-quarter-twist punch. Also, the alignment of the full-twist punch to the center of the body increases the range of motion of the chest and shoulder muscles; the pectoral muscle is more fully contracted and the lateral deltoid is more stretched. As a result, the centered, full-twist punch is a better form of exercise than the off-centered, three-quarter-twist punch Therefore, those who practice the full-twist punch should only use it when performing patterns or drills, but never when punching a heavy bag or during breaking (to minimize the risk of injury).
In 1992, Ralph Buschbacher, M.D., a 7th degree black belt in Ryukyu Kempo and a clinical associate professor in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the Indiana University Medical Center in Indianapolis, Indiana, conducted cadaver studies to understand the physiology and mechanics of punching. He found that the three-quarter-twist punch best fits the anatomy of the forearm in handing the stress of punching. The following paragraphs discuss some of the factors involved in punching.