Concentration is not only internal to the body; it also involves concentrating the internal forces of the body upon an external target. The smaller the surface area of the striking object, the greater the force per square inch is transferred to the target. Pressure = Force/Area. Therefore, the pressure applied to the target may be increased by increasing the applied force or by decreasing the area that is applying the force. A side thrust kick that strikes with the edge of the heel (small area) will hit with a much greater force than the same kick that strikes with the bottom of the heel (larger area).
If a person stands on snow while wearing snowshoes, his or her weight is spread over a large area, and the force is not enough to penetrate the snow. If the same person stands on snow without the snowshoes, his or her weight is concentrated in a smaller area and he or she sinks into the snow. Thus, the smaller the striking area the more striking force is transferred to the target. Conversely, the smaller the target area, the less power is transferred to the target and greater damage is done to the striking object than is done to the target. For example, a strike to the opponent’s abdomen with the fist will damage the abdomen, but if the same strike hits the point of the opponent’s bent elbow, the elbow will damage the fist.
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