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Traditional resuscitation techniques
- The direct massage of the carotid triangle on the neck to open up a collapsed artery or to stimulate the carotid sinus manually.
- Methods of assisting the victim in waking up and focusing attention, such as slapping the victim, striking the sole of the foot, or yelling.
- Methods of inducing or simulating breathing through massage of the chest or diaphragm by expanding and contracting the lungs.
- With the victim sitting before you, from behind, bend your right knee and place the kneecap against the person's spine. Spread your fingers and place your hands on his or her lower chest, hooking your fingers under the lower ribs. Pull back as if opening the ribs to either side, put your weight on the shoulders to bend the body back, and press with your right knee. This will draw air into the lungs. When the ribs have opened as far as they will go, release them. Air will be exhaled from the lungs. Repeat the process slowly and regularly.
- Kneel to the right of the victim and support his or her upper body with your left arm around the shoulder. Put the palm of your right hand on the abdomen, just above the navel, and press up against the solar plexus or pit of the stomach. This will cause the diaphragm to rise, expelling air from the lungs. Reinforce the action by bending the upper body forward with your left arm. Gently release your pressure to allow air to enter the lungs. Repeat this procedure until respiration is restored.
- Lay the victim on his or her back and kneel astride the hips. Place your hands, fingers spread apart and pointing toward his or her head, on the bottom of the rib cage. Lean forward and press against the ribs to make him or her exhale, and then relax the pressure. Repeat this procedure, rocking forward and back, until the victim can breathe without assistance. Similarly this can be done with the victim on his stomach.