Goals and Performance
A 1997 study by King and Williams, Goal orientation and performance in martial arts, looked at goal orientation and performance in novice martial art students by having them complete the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire to rate their satisfaction and performance, and then having their instructors rated their performance in basic skills, effort, persistence, and consistency.
Task orientation is a mastery approach that focuses on hard work, learning goals, improving skills, and gaining understanding. Performance orientation is focused on ego, competition success, gaining recognition, establishing superiority over others, and a belief in natural ability rather than hard work.
Generally, traditional martial arts focus on mastering self-defense and perfecting techniques, which is consistent with a task orientation approach, whereas, sport oriented martial arts focus on tournament preparation and are consistent with a performance orientation. The researchers found that a task orientation predicted performance and was positively correlated with enjoyment.