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3rd Layer: electronic immobilizing devices that prevent thieves from bypassing the ignition and hot wiring the vehicle.
- Factory installed. Some vehicles are manufactured with devices that disable the ignition if the proper key is not used.
- Disablers. Devices such as BackJax, ProtectaPost, and Jimmi' Jammer disable the vehicle so the engine will not start. Devices may require a switch or button be activated, may use fuse cut-offs, or may use starter or fuel disablers.
4th Layer: tracking systems that emit a signal to police or monitoring service when the vehicle is reported stolen.
- GPS (Global Positioning System)/GPS-cellular based systems. Systems such as Lojack and OnStar use GPS signals that allow the vehicle to be tracked and recovered by authorities. These systems operate via the network of GPS satellites, which was designed primarily as navigation tool and not as a vehicle recovery solution. Satellite signals are vulnerable to being blocked and receiving antennas are visible and easily disabled.
- Cellular based systems. Systems such as use cellular telecommunication networks to provide a broader geographical scope than any other tracking system. These systems can successfully locate stolen vehicles located in underground parking lots and shipping containers, which GPS and GPS-cellular systems cannot do. They can locate a vehicle within 3 feet of its actual location, often within an hour.