Culture Conflict Theory by Black
Culture conflict theory posits that deviants (criminals) are members of peer groups that support norms that are in conflict with the norms of conventional society. Society is not held together by agreement but rather is held together in a dynamic equilibrium of opposing group interests and efforts. Power is the principal determinant of the outcome of this conflict.
Moral-development theories propose that the development of moral reasoning follows a universal sequence of distinct stages wherein cognitive structures provide the framework within which information is processed and organized. Cultural factors may stimulate or retard trends of development but they do not affect the order of development. There are three major levels of moral judgment development. The first level is the "pre-conventional" (lowest level) where moral rules are understood as "do’s" and "don’ts" associated with punishment. The second level is the "conventional" where the person understands, accepts, and attempts to uphold the rules of society. And lastly, the "post-conventional" level (highest level) is where social rules are critically examined in terms of universal human moral principles.
Social Learning Theory by Akers
Social learning theory proposes that if close friends and local peers are perceived to regard crime positively, the probability of crime is increased, and vice versa. Criminal behavior embraces variables that operate to both motivate and control criminal behavior, and to promote and undermine conformity. Major concepts:
- Differential association.
- Definitions one attaches to a behavior.
- Differential Reinforcement- the balance of anticipated or actual rewards and punishments that follow or are consequences of a behavior.
- Imitation- observing similar behavior in others.