What is Aggression?
- The initiation of an attack with intent to injure.
- A sequence of behavior in which the goal is to injure another person.
- A behavior directed against a living target, in which there is a probability greater than zero of imparting a noxious stimulus.
- Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.
- For an action to be overt behavior, it must be directed against a living target, thus excluding hitting a desk with a fist.
- For an action to be aggressive, it must be with intent to harm the target, thus excluding unintended injury upon another human being.
- There must a reasonable expectation that the aggression will be successful and that the target harmed. Thus, this excludes behavior where the victim cannot be harmed, i.e. aggressor and victim are separated by bars or teammates.
- Goal: To injure another human being
- Intent: To make him/her suffer
- Reinforcement: The pain and suffering caused
This type of aggression is always accompanied by an angry aggressor.
Example: After being angered by being accidentally hit while sparring, the student purposely strikes the opponent.
- Goal: To receive some other external goal
- Intent: To harm the opponent
- Reinforcement: The external reward
Example: During competition, student sees winning as important and uses unnecessary force to intimidate the opponent.
Assertiveness is often confused with aggression. Assertiveness involves legitimate, physical, or verbal force to achieve a goal. There is no intent to harm; therefore, it is not aggression.
Finding a common moral value is difficult yet essential in defining aggression in sport. Some people think that any type of aggression is wrong but sometimes aggression is morally acceptable, such as in defending the life of another person.
Understanding the game mentality
Every game and sport has its own culture or accepted way of doing things. Understanding this culture is vital in distinguishing between acceptable behavior and unacceptable behavior. Therefore, one’s perspective of the game and the influence of the game’s culture constitute one’s views on aggression in a sport.
Distinguishing between aggressive acts in Taekwondo that are acceptable and those that are unacceptable is based upon three issues:
- The game mentality may negate morality, thus making sport devoid of moral considerations
- The game mentality may have no consequence for moral reasoning
- The game mentality may alter moral meanings
How does aggression Affect performance?
Hostile Aggression. Performance would appear to wane in light of the aggressor being more concerned with harming the opponent than defeating the opponent.
Instrumental Aggression. Performance would be more likely to improve given that the player harms the opponent in order of gaining an advantage. Such variables as gender, degree of sport involvement, and external rewards influence also affect athletic aggression.