This article examines the structure of a ound deductive argument, from its premise to its conclusion. The conclusion is only as compelling as the premises upon which it is based. Logic in itself does not solve the problem of verifying the basic assertions that are used to support arguments, for that, we need to use scientific enquiry. Since the philosophy of science and the scientific method are complicated topics, they are not covered in this discussion.
A proposition is a statement that is either true or false. It pertains to the meaning of the statement, not to the arrangement of words used to convey that meaning. For example, "There a black belt in our class" is a proposition. "Our class has a black belt in it" is a rephrasing of the same proposition. Care must be used in rephrasing, since it is easy to change the meaning of a statement unintentionally by rephrasing it.
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